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+ نوشته شده در  یکشنبه سیزدهم بهمن 1387ساعت 23:58  توسط مجتبی رحیمی  | 

The Langstroth bee hive is the standard beehive used in many parts of the world for bee keeping. The advantage of the Langstroth hive over hives previous to its invention on October 30, 1851, is that the bees build honeycomb into frames, which can be moved with little trouble because the frames are designed so that the bees do not build wax honeycomb attached to the inside of the hive, and do not cement the frames to the side of the box using a resinous substance called propolis. This ability to move the frames allows the beekeeper to manage the bees in a way that had previously been impossible.

Other inventors, notably Huber, had designed hives with movable frames, but Langstroth's hive was the first practical movable frame hive which overcame the tendency of the bees to fill empty spaces with comb and to cement smaller spaces together with propolis. This practicality is demonstrated by the eventual adoption of the Langstroth hive over all others, and its current use throughout the world

ادامه مطلب
+ نوشته شده در  یکشنبه سیزدهم بهمن 1387ساعت 23:36  توسط مجتبی رحیمی  | 

Bees are not only admirablly in regaining once discovered worthwhile Trachtquellen, still more astonish it with its ability the knowledge of the situation of the fodder places their nest companions at home to communicate and these to the assistance with the collecting business to energize. Finally it would be wasteful, if the whole people would go on a trip aimlessly after all directions, in order to look for and register fodder arbitrarily. Instead a small number of to it appointing - one calls it trace bees - particularly goes on the search. Who found something, home flies and gives message from the discovery. That happens in the form of dances on the honeycombs. Thereby details are communicated to the source of fodder over direction, distance and extensiveness. And this goes in such a way: If the fodder place lies in next proximity of the bee shed, to somewhat 50 m distance, then the bee specifies a round dance , as shown in the following fig


Bee dance


ادامه مطلب
+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه هفتم بهمن 1387ساعت 15:14  توسط مجتبی رحیمی  | 

Anatomy and Morphology of Honeybees - Apis mellifera

The pics below showing wax glands of bees


Wachsdruesen der Honigbiene Wachsdruesen der Honigbiene


Wachsdruesen der Honigbiene Wachsdruesen der Honigbiene



The illustration above shows a adulte (attained full growth) female worker from the side. As is the case for most other insects the body consists of three anatomical sections: (1) the head with the mouth tools and sensory organs like the eyes and the feelers (antennas), (2) the thorax (chest), a center of attraction, which is filled with muscles nearly completely, which move the membranous wing and the arranged legs, and (3) the abdomen (abdomen), which than the other parts is larger and which contains organs for different functions, among other things for digesting, blutkreislauf and stinging.

Expresses structure of the insects

The mouth member masses of the bee cover two tool kits, one for chewing and one for sucking. The most important chewing tools are the firm, kieferartigen Mandibeln (Oberkiefer). To form to deseam to cut open it used around wax to chew pollen to collect plant resins stick bees, blooms - to reach the inaccessible Nektar - and even, in order to hold enemies and to have so a firm starting point for the a stinging of the prick. Absorbing liquids becomes with the Proboscis (trunk) [ see picture above ] implemented, a fold upable apparatus from different mouth tools, which form a tube around the tongue. In this tube liquids move by movements of the bee tongue, by sucking with the mouth and perhaps also by capillary effect upward. The trunk serves to take up Nektar; the bee uses it in addition, for the water collecting, for the fodder exchange with stick bees, for the Ablecken of pheromones and similar substances of other bees and for distributing Nektar and water for a fast evaporation in the stick. If it is not used, the trunk is folded into a large furrow at the lower surface of the head. Firm fodder, mainly pollen, can be taken up not with the trunk, but, after it was zerkaut with the Mandibeln into small pieces, directly to the mouth is taken up.
The legs of a bee serve not only the Lokomotion (progressive movement), but also for the fodder collecting, because they possess special structures for transporting bloom polling, a normally dry, dust-like material. At the exterior of the broad Tibia (rail) of each Hinterbeines ine device, which holds the bloom dust, is the so-called Koerbchen. Its top side is smoothly, easily trough-shaped deepened and inward hair curved by a wreath/ring of long, set in. The pollen is moistened with Nektar, loaded then oh into the Koerbchen and held by the hair at its place. Bees, which are busy with polling collecting, are by the remarkable clumps of bright colored bloom dust (the so-called "panties"), loaded on their hind legs, to recognize immediately [ see the following picture ] the Koerbchen are also used, in order to transport Propolis (cement resin), which is collected by sticky tree buds and used with the development of the bienenstocks.

Morphologic representation

The prick apparatus lies hidden in a special prick chamber in the last abdomen segment. It is a modified putting prick. The prick consists of two Stechborsten provided with Widerhaken and the prick gutter. Both interlink, in order to form a Giftkanuele within the military prick. The bee poison is formed in a giftdruese, which extends to a blister, in which the poison is collected. If the bee stings, it drives poison into the Stachelkanuele and the sharp Stechborsten is pushed into the skin of the attacked animal. If the bee tries its prick from firm skin to withdraw or the enemy tries a stinging bee to strip, ensures the Widerhaken at the Stechborsten for the fact that the stechapparat remains embodied. In consequence its dies the bee.

+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه هفتم بهمن 1387ساعت 15:5  توسط مجتبی رحیمی  | 

morphology of a honeybee: worker [3]

anatomy of a honeybee

honeycomb section

morphology of a honeybee: worker [1]

morphology of a honeybee: worker [2]

+ نوشته شده در  دوشنبه هفتم بهمن 1387ساعت 14:58  توسط مجتبی رحیمی  |